In a typical experiment, a pigeon is shown a large number of colour photographs of natural scenes: half of these contain, somewhere within the scene, all or part of a tree or group of trees the other half contain no tree (although there might be flowers, a climbing rose, or other plants. Abstract pigeons were trained to discriminate the duration of a stimulus one response in a psychophysical choice situation was reinforced, given the immediately prior presentation of a stimulus duration in one class of durations called short durations, and the other response was reinforced given the immediately prior presentation of a stimulus duration in a second class called long durations. 148 gaitan and wixted experiment of this kind, sample and no-sample trials are randomly intermixed, and the pigeon's task is to report whether or not a sample appeared.
Experiment 2 once a reliable temporal discrimination was obtained, we ran an experiment in which we tested whether the temporal information was lost with the passage of time following experiment 1, every subject was tested after retention intervals of 3, 7, and 20 days. The researchers found that the length of the line affected the pigeons' discrimination of line duration, and the duration of the line affected the pigeons' discrimination of line length. The pigeons in this experiment were taught that pecking at the good set of pictures would yield a grain reward, whereas pecking at the bad set of pictures would not do so. Temporal discrimination in pigeons 12155 a linear function, at= k t +s, was fittedto thediffer ence threshold (median at) data by the method ofleast squares criterion t and atstand for the standard dura.
Abstract two experiments examined the discrimination by pigeons of relative motion using computer-generated video stimuli using a go/no-go procedure, pigeons were. Pigeons trained to peck a lighted key were presented with a key that was alternately dark and lighted the key was dark for intervals of from 3 to 30 seconds pecking of the lighted key was reinforced only after the shortest or, in a second experiment, the longest interval that the key was dark. Judgments, little research has examined pigeons' scene categorization, and no studies have examined pigeons' ability to do so rapidly in experiment 1, pigeons were trained to discriminate between either 2 basic-level. The light off is the discriminative stimulus in the presence of which turning clockwise will be reinforced the light on is the discriminative stimulus in the presence of which turning counter.
Bf skinner, a leading 20th century psychologist who hypothesized that behavior was caused only by external factors, not by thoughts or emotions, was a controversial figure in a field that tends. In experiment 2, reducing the duration of the first stimulus produced a greater decrement in memory performance than reducing the duration of the second stimulus. In experiment 1, we attempted to train pigeons to perform a two-alternative simultaneous discrimination of rotational speed, using stimuli similar to those of cook et al (2011) in experiment 2.
Pigeons conditioned to disc peck and then peck a certain coloured disc then presented pigeons with various coloured discs including disc colour used in training result: the pigeons pecked the discs that resembled the training disc colour more often than others that were not close to the colour. 22 emmerton gate the effects on discrimination of various stimulus ma-nipulations the first manipulation was to change bar orientation although pigeons show rotational invariance and recog. The results suggest that when sample stimuli differ in salience, pigeons may trans- form the nominal discrimination task into a detection task in which they respond on the basis of the presence or absence of the more salient sample.
Experiments 2 and 2a examined discrimination performance when the temporal variables, flash rate and sample phase duration, were perfectly correlated (experiment 2) or only weakly correlated (experiment 2a) with flash number. Psychologists epstein and skinner in a classic classroom film originally released in 1982 and dubbed best film of the year by the american psychological association.
Errorless learning was an instructional design introduced by psychologist charles ferster in the 1950s as part of his studies on what would make the most effective learning environment. In their experiment, pigeons were trained to discriminate the duration of a short- from a long-duration light by reinforcing one choice after the short-duration signal and another after the longer signal. Pigeons not so bird-brained when it comes to space and time, experiment finds showed that line length affected the pigeons' discrimination of line duration, and vice-versa. As noted, pigeons were just as accurate at discriminating based on a duration ratio criterion as when the discrimination required an assessment of which color lasted longer (fetterman et al, 1989) a key difference between the pigeon and human experiments involved the methods by which the task was communicated to the participants.